Contribution to Population Change by Component
Using the ‘mover-stayer’ data from the internal migration maps, this set of maps provides direct comparison of the contribution of each component to the Census Usually Resident Population (CURP) at each Census, for each regional council area. Each component is shown as a percentage of the CURP at the end of the period.
- Stayers comprise the largest proportion of each Census Usually Resident population, generally accounting for between two-thirds and four-fifths and remaining very similar over the past five censuses (data for only the last three censuses are shown here). Values have been consistently highest for the Southland, Taranaki and Canterbury regions, and lowest for Nelson and Tasman (not always in the same order).
- The percentage of each population categorised as Internal Arrivals typically accounts for the second largest component of each Census Usually Resident population. The Nelson and Tasman regions have consistently recorded the highest proportions, and Auckland the lowest.
- The percentage of each population categorised as Overseas five years ago has been consistently highest for Auckland and lowest or second-lowest for Gisborne.
- The percentage of each population categorised as not born five years ago was highest at the 2006 census and lowest at the 2018 census, for all regional council areas.
- The main mover origins and destinations of each individual Region and TA are often identical, as they are also across each period, and often account for similar proportions of movers in each direction. It would seem that the majority of New Zealand movers move within relatively narrow geographic areas, and that these areas may coincide with labour market regions (Papps and Newell 2002).
Census Usually Resident Population Counts (CURP) were originally sourced from Statistics New Zealand (2014, 2020) and are based on the Census question ‘where did you usually live five years ago?’ Because some people fail to provide this information on their census form, a methodological decision was made to prorate the data for those people according to the local (regional or territorial authority area) distribution for those whose address five years ago was stated (see caveat below).
Data for people who gave both their current and past address were categorised as either:
- Stayers (people living in the same region or territorial authority area at both censuses—although they may have moved elsewhere within that area, and/or out of the area and back in, between the censuses);
- Internal Arrivals (people living in the specified region or territorial authority area who lived elsewhere in New Zealand five years ago);
- Internal Departures (people who lived in the specified region or territorial authority area five years ago, but now live elsewhere in New Zealand);
- Overseas Arrivals (people who were living overseas five years ago); or
- Not Born Five Years Ago (children aged 0-4 years, born since the previous census and whose address five years ago cannot therefore be determined).
Those who did not provide their current and/or previous address are recorded at the various censuses as either 'living elsewhere in NZ/not further defined', 'not elsewhere included/address five years ago not stated' or ‘unable to match’ (hereafter ‘Unmatched’. Unmatched data were prorated across ‘known’ migration as follows:
Stayers in each region or territorial authority area, Arrivals from each other region or territorial authority area, and Arrivals from Overseas were summed and their distribution calculated as a percentage. This percentage was then applied to the ‘unmatched’ number and the resulting number added to the number having stated their previous residence.
Leavers (Departures). The database is set up as a matrix, with area of usual residence 5 years ago juxtaposed against area of usual residence at each census. The resulting (prorated) Internal Arrival numbers from each region or territorial authority area simultaneously become Internal Leavers from the latter areas, based on their address 5 years ago.
Caveat: The methodological assumption that people who ‘lived elsewhere in New Zealand/not further defined’, ‘not elsewhere included/address five years ago not stated’ or ‘unmatched’ have the same residential distribution as those who did specify their previous address may be incorrect. We took this approach because it is preferable to calculating movements based on ‘known’ previous residence only, as these proportions differ substantially for each region and territorial authority area. The resulting data should thus be viewed as a best approximation of the situation and will differ slightly from the raw data that Statistics New Zealand publishes, and other analysts may generate. The 2018 data reflect the 2018 geographic classification. The 2001, 2006 and 2013 data reflect the 2013 geographical classification.
Braybn L and NO Jackson (2019) A new look at population change and regional development in Aotearoa New Zealand. New Zealand Geographer 75: 116-129. DOI: 10.1111/nzg.12234
Braybn L, NO Jackson, G Stichbury, T McHardie (2019) Visualising and Communicating Population Diversity through Web Maps. New Zealand Population Review 45: 46–66
Jackson NO (2017) ‘Introduction and overview’ Policy Quarterly Supplement 13: 3-9.
Jackson NO and L Brabyn (2017) The mechanisms of subnational population growth and decline in New Zealand, 1976-2013’ Policy Quarterly Supplement 13: 22-36. http://igps.victoria.ac.nz/publications/PQ/2017/PQ-Vol-13-Supplementary-2017.pdf.
Papps KL and JO Newell (2002) Identifying Functional Labor Market Areas in New Zealand: A Reconnaissance Study Using Travel-to-Work Data. IZA Discussion Paper No. 443, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=304439.
Preston K, D Maré, A Grimes, S Donovan (2018) Amenities and the attractiveness of New Zealand Cities. Motu Working Paper 18-14. Motu Economic and Public Policy Research.
Statistics New Zealand (2020) Customised Database, Area of Usual Residence (2018) and Usual Residence 5 Years Ago (2013) by Age Groups for the Census Usually Resident Population Count 2018.
Statistics New Zealand (2014) Customised Database, Area of Usual Residence (2006 and 2013) and Usual Residence 5 Years Ago (2001 and 2008) by Age Groups for the Census Usually Resident Population Count, 2006 and 2013.